|Saint Ambrose of Milan,
Bishop and Doctor - Died 397
St. Ambrose was bishop of Milan when the city was the capital of the western empire. Both medieval hagiographers and modern historians note his assertive stands against members of the imperial family, resisting the Arianism of the Empress Justina and demanding repentance from the Emperor Theodosius for a massacre in Thessalonica (as in this painting). These posititions helped establish in the West the principle that the Church was supreme in spiritual matters.
In the art the emblem of St. Ambrose's assertiveness is often a riding whip (example).
(Note however that a whip is also the emblem of St. Colomban, who was just as outspoken, though less successful, in opposing Queen Brunhild in Gaul.)
In addition to this whip and his episcopal mitre and crozier, artists derived further attributes and subject matter from the Golden Legend's chapter on St. Ambrose, such as beehives to recall the swarm that came to his mouth when he was a child and a pointing boy to refer to the unusual events that led to his choice as bishop.
Other attributes refer to his theological work: a book in his hand, an inspirational dove above him while he writes, or an ox to represent his commentary on the Gospel of Luke.
Finally, St. Ambrose figures in images of the life of St. Augustine, whom he baptized (example), and of SS. Ambrose and Protasius, whose cult he encouraged (example).
Feast day: December 7
At left, "St. Ambrose" - Giovanni di Paolo
Polyptych panel of St. Ambrose, VivariniHagiography: