Section One: Preparing Your
Papers you write for your sociology classes, for presentation
to scholarly conferences, or for publication in professional
journals should all follow a similar form. All text should be
printed double-spaced on 81/2-by-11-inch white bond. Do not
use colored paper unless asked by your instructor. Margins should
be about 1.25 inches.
Your title page should include a title for the paper (center
this, about 1/3 of the way down the page), your name, the name
of the course you are submitting the paper for, your instructor's
name, and the date. The latter information can either be centered,
about 2/3 of the way down the page, or located in the bottom
right quadrant of the paper.
Not every instructor requires an abstract. Check to see if
your instructor wants an abstract. If you include an abstract,
it should be on a separate page following the title page. Include
the paper title above the abstract, but do not include your
name or other information. The abstract must be one brief paragraph
(no more than 150 words) and should describe the major points
and contributions of your paper.
Start the text of your paper on a separate page, headed by
the title of the paper. This page counts as page one of your
paper. Number the next page and all following pages. You may
place page numbers in the upper right corner or in the bottom
center of your pages.
Your reference list follows the text of your paper (but is
numbered along with the text). This page should be titled, "References."
All references cited in your paper should be in the reference
list. Do not include references you may have looked at but did
not find useful enough to cite or quote. Do not pad your reference
page. Refer to Section Two (below) for information on constructing
the reference page.
We prefer that you use "in text citations" rather than footnotes.
Be sure to cite in your paper any source (1) which you quote,
(2) to which you refer specifically, or (3) from which you derived
specific information. Your citations allow the reader to gauge
the quality of the information you use in your paper, to read
the sources you used to gather further information, and to check
the accuracy of your statements.
Your citations should include the last names of the author
you are citing and the year of publication of the source you
are citing. If you are quoting a passage or referring to a specific
idea or fact, the citation should also include the page number.
Most writers now prefer to include information on the author
and the author's name in the text; this is often a cleaner style.
You will find it useful to put as much information in the text
itself as possible.
Following are several examples of citations. Use these models
in your own writing.
If the author's name is included in
your sentence, cite only the year of publication:
| ...where Reese argues against faulty
reasoning in popularized social sciences (1996). |
If the author's name is NOT included
in your sentence, cite author and year of publication:
| ...offers a powerful argument against
faulty reasoning in popularized social sciences (Reese
When you cite information from a specific
page, and name the authors in the sentence, then cite the year
of publication and include the page number after a colon:
| ...Scarboro and Luck argue that
Wicca challenges sociologists' understanding of contemporary
religion in America (1997: 70). |
If you do not include the authors
in your sentence, cite them in the parenthesis:
| ...the argument is made in a different
form in an earlier work (Scarboro, Campbell, and Stave
1994: 265). |
Quotations often give writers problems, although the stylistic
concerns should not be a big deal. Short quotations are included
in your paragraph and are identified by quotation marks. The
source of the quotation is cited at the end of the quotation--after
the ending quotation marks. Note that the sentence's punctuation
follows the citation--outside the parenthesis.
In her incisive article on men's
voluntary exposure to pornography, Davies concludes
that "greater exposure to pornography did not result
in more negative opinions towards feminism" (1997:136).
Alienation was found to be "a
processionally enacted quality of an activity, an interaction,
or a relationship"(Reese 1997:73).
Longer quotations seem to give more trouble, but the correct
style here is also fairly simple: for quotations longer than
three lines of text, set the quotation off in a block. The block
should be indented and set in smaller font. Do NOT use quotation
marks with blocked quotations. Do cite the source at the end
of the quotation:
Reese (1997) argues the centrality
of the concept of alienation to the practice of sociology:
At the heart of sociological practice is the dialectical
foundation of the discipline given by first Marx and
then Durkheim. It is hardly surprising then that the
core concepts of the discipline--Marx's concept of
alienation and Durkheim's concept of anomie--have
generated a surfeit of attention (P. 72).
by arguing that, despite the centrality of these concepts,
they continue to be muddied in sociological writing
Note: since the author and year of publication were named in the
sentence, in this example, the page quoted is indicated by the
capital "P" in parenthesis at the end of the blocked quotation.
Here are some more examples of using
a blocked quote:
on the relationships among viewing pornography and
a wide variety of anti-social attitudes andbehaviors
have been sharp, divisive, and passionate; however,
these debates have seldom been fueled by appropriate
studies. For example,My research suggests that pornographic
videos may not have the effects on men that anti-pornography
feminists have previously argued....the results of
this research indicate that experimental studies may
not, as has been suggested, be a valid representation
of what occurs outside an experimental laboratory...(Davies
studies have begun to re-think the old idea of colleges
as collegium; that is, as educational communities.One
model research report tackles this idea head-on: This
new quest for community seeks to forge the fragmented
experiences of diverse people into a new form of solidarity,
a new type of community, consistent with the trends
of modern society...[seeking] tomaintain the values
of individualism while simultaneously providing a
sense of identity and belonging to a community that
dispenses with antiurban and antimodern biases as
well as the popular nostalgic views of pre- industrial
communists (Thompson and Johnston 1977:1-2).
This model recognizes
the roots of modern colleges in the Arcadian retreats
of nineteenth-century educational enterprises while
pleading for a more democratic, this-worldly group engaged
in a mutually-supportive but not necessarily identical
set of goals.
For other examples, refer
to any of the style guides listed at the beginning of these
comments on style.
Citing Your References
The "References" section of your
paper lists all the works you actually cite or refer to in your
paper. Usually, you will not include works that you looked at
but did not find useful; cite only those you quote from or refer
to directly. Citations from different kinds of sources follow
somewhat different rules; the following list gives examples
from most of these kinds of sources. Also be sure to alphabatize
Sanday, Peggy Reeves. 1996. A
Woman Scorned: Acquaintance Rape on Trial. New
Weber, Max. 1996. The Protestant
Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Translated by
Talcott Parsons. Introduction by Randall Collins. Los Angeles:
Agee, James and Walker Evans.
1960. Let Us Now Praise Famous Men: Three
Tenant Families. New York:
Scarboro, Allen, Nancy Campbell,
and Shirley Stave. 1994. Living Witchcraft: A
Contemporary American Coven.Westport,
Henslin, James M. 1997. Down
to Earth Sociology: Introductory Readings. 9th ed.
New York: Free Press.
From Collected Works
Case, Charles E. 1997. "Racist
and Egalitarian Ideologies in Modern American
Culture." Pp. 99-105 in Analyzing
Social Problems, edited by Dana Dunn and David
Waller. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Reese, William A. II. 1997. "Alienation:
Extending an Interactionist Conceptualization."
Pp. 59-84 in Constructing Complexity: Symbolic Interaction
and Social Forms, edited by Dan E. Miller, Michael
A. Katovich, and Stanley L. Saxton.
(Supplement 3 to Studies in Symbolic Interaction, edited
by Norman K. Denzin). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Davies, Kimberly. 1997. "Voluntary
Exposure to Pornography and Men's Attitudes
Toward Feminism and Rape."Journal
of Sex Research, 34, 2: 131-137.
Case, Charles and John Arthur.
1994. "Race, Class, and Support for Police Use of
Force." Crime Law and SocialChange,
Reese, William A., II. 1996. "The
Shaped Bell Curve and the Social
Sciences." Social Science Journal
Wardell, Mark L. and Robert L.
Johnston. 1987. "Class Struggle and Industrial
Transformation: The U.S. Anthracite
Industry, 1820-1902." Theory and Society
Scarboro, Allen and Philip Andrew
Luck. 1997. "The Goddess and Power: Witchcraft
and Religion in America." Journal of Contemporary Religion
Reese, William A., II. 1995. "Community
Should Unite, Seek Solutions to Underlying
Causes of Crime." Augusta Chronicle, September 21, p.
Watkins, Ralph C. 1997. The
Institutionalization of the African Methodist
Episcopal Church. Ph.D. dissertation,
Department of Sociology, University of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
Thompson, Ernestine and Robert
L. Johnston. 1997. "And the Greatest of These Is
Respect: A Report on Focus Groups with Members of the ASU Community."
Department of Sociology, Augusta State University, Augusta,
Johnston, Robert L., Tanya D.
Davis, and Sheryl T. Redmon. 1995. "The 1995 Augusta College
Student Profile." Sociology Research Methods Students. Department
of Sociology, Augusta College, Augusta, Georgia.
Presented at Professional Meetings
Thompson, Ernestine. 1994. "Evaluating
Teaching: Redefining Scholarly Work in
Sociology." Presented at the annual
meeting of the American Sociological
Association, August 20, Los Angeles.
Davies, Kimberly. 1997. "Economic
Inequality Among Women and Female Perpetrated
Homicide in 1990." Presented at the annual meeting of the Academy
of Criminal Justice Sciences, March 13, Louisville, Kentucky.
Nall, Lorraine E. and Kimberly
Davies. 1998. "Cultural Representations of Women and
Girls in Elementary School Textbooks." Presented at the annual
meeting of the MidSouth Sociological
Association, October 15, Lafayette, Louisiana.
Luck, Philip Andrew, Johanna Moronta,
and Johnny Smith. 1996. "Graduate Students
Mentoring Undergraduates." Presented at the annual meeting of
the Southern Sociological Society,
April 4, Richmond, Virginia.
- An on-line journal article
Reese, William A., II, Russell
L. Curtis, and James R. Whitworth. 1988. "Dispositional
Discretion or Disparity: The Juvenile Probation Officer's Role
in Delinquency Processing." Journal
of Applied Behavioral Sciences 21:81-101. Retrieved
12 March 1998 (http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?RQ8).
- An abstract
Howell, Frank M. and William A.
Reese. 1986. "Sex and Mobility in the Dual Economy:
From Entry to Midcareer" (Abstract). Work and Occupations
13:77- 97. Retrieved 12 March
Scarboro, Allen. 1996. Interview
of Lady Sintana [Candace Hunstman] by author.
Atlanta, Georgia, April 22.